Tossa de Mar : Cape Tossa :
Only Medieval fortified town on the Catalan coast
- Roman villa and the walled old town, Vila Vella, of medieval origin
- Cape Tossa & old town walls were declared a national historic and artistic monument
- Only surviving example of a medieval fortified town on the Catalan coast
- Vila Vella, the ‘walled-in’ old town, built between the 12th and 14th centuries when Tossa de Mar facing the attacks from pirates
- 1186, Ramon of Berga the abbot of the Monastery of Ripoll, granted inhabitants charter as a promontory (defensible dominant outcrop)
- Promontory, originally known as Mont Guardí
- In 1931, the site was declared a national historic monument
- Two of the five original towers were destroyed (are gone)
- In 1387, reconstruction work was carried out, resulting in constructions seen now
- Walled town began to deteriorate badly in the mid-19th century, but repair work Carried out in 1923, 1966, 1989 and 1990
- In the early-1930s, a large community of local and foreign artists Became Established in Tossa, Including Marc Chagall, Georges Kars, Olga Sacharoff, André Masson, Rafel Benedict, Peter Créixams Enric Casanovas Francisco Domingo, etc..
- Can Magi Tower (Torre dels Moros – Moorish Tower) 15th-16th century watchtower, to guard against the raids of Turkish & Barbary Coast pirates.
Who regularly attacked this part of the coast
- Much of the sentry path is conserved, with loopholes for firing and defence
- Also wooden floor planks and staircase inside the Torre de les Hores tower
- Walled city entered via a semi-circular arched gateway once emblazoned with three coats of arms
- At height it had Gothic-style church, now in ruins, and some 80 houses.
Many are still inhabited PDF